Calculator 12 - Phase Relationships Calculator

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Moisture Content Calculator

Mass of water: 

Mass of solids: 

Moisture Content:   

These values are determined by weighing a sample of the soil and then drying the sample in an oven and reweighing.  A drying period of 24 hrs at 105-110oC is normally adequate for most soils.

Degree of Saturation Calculator

Volume of water: 
Volume of voids: 

Degree of Saturation:   

The degree of saturation can range between the limits of zero for a completely dry soil, and 1 for a fully saturated soil.

Void Ratio Calculator

Volume of voids: 
Volume of solids: 

Void Ratio: 

Porosity Calculator

Volume of voids: 
Total volume of media: 


Example Calculation (Adapted from Craig, 1997)

In it's natural condition a soil sample has a mass of 2290g, a volume of 1.15 x 10-3 m3, and particle density of 2540 kg/m3 (density of just the solids).  After being completely dried in an oven the mass of the sample is 2035g.

Moisture Content:

Mass of water

= 2290-2035 = 225g

Mass of solids

= 2035g

Thus, moisture content = 0.125 or 12.5%

Degree of Saturation:

Volume of Water

= mass of water/density of water

= 225g /106 g/m3 = 2.25x10-4 m3

Volume of Voids:

= total volume - particle volume

= 1.15 x 10-3 m3-(2035g/2.54x106 g/m3)

= 1.15 x 10-3 m3 - 8.01 x 10-4 m3

= 3.49 x 10-4 m3

Thus, degree of saturation = 0.645 or 64.5%

Void Ratio:

Volume of Voids = 3.49 x 10-4 m3

Volume of Solids = 8.01 x 10-4 m3

Thus, void ratio = 0.44 or 44%


Volume of Voids = 3.49 x 10-4 m3

Total Volume of Media = 1.15 x 10-3 m3

Thus, porosity = 0.303 or 30.3%



Craig, R.F. (1997). Soil Mechanics; Sixth Edition.  Published by Chapman & Hall, USA.


 Related products include :


Solinst 425 Discrete Interval Sampler