Calculator 16 - Pressure & Energy Unit Conversion Calculator


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Units of pressure and energy occur frequently in environmental applications. These applications include the measurement of hydraulic head as pressure, evaluation of hydrological systems as energy (energy balance equations for flow, solutes and thermal systems). These properties can be measured in a variety of units, including the ones in the following calculators:


Input: Units:

Output: Units:


Input: Units:

Output: Units:



Pressure head measurements were taken by a consultant at your current site 30 years ago.  You are interested in the changes in the head at the site since then.  The measurements you have taken are in the units of Pa, and the old measurements were in pounds per square feet.  One of the old measurements is 2.5 lb/ft2, and your recent measurement was 135 Pa.  How much has the pressure head changed in the past 30 years?


Using the calculator you should find that 135 Pa = 2.81 lb/ft2 OR 2.81 lb/ft2 = 134.54 Pa so the pressure head has not changed significantly.


There are many resources available for more information on unit conversions.  For this newsletter  the following textbooks were used:

Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A. (1979). Groundwater. Published by Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Fetter, C.W. (1994). Applied Hydrogeology, Third Edition. Published by Macmillan College Publishing Company, Inc., New York.