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Vol. 9  No. 3



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Pressure/Energy Unit Conversion Calculator

Units of pressure and energy occur frequently in environmental applications. These applications include the measurement of hydraulic head as pressure, evaluation of hydrological systems as energy (energy balance equations for flow, solutes and thermal systems). These properties can be measured in a variety of units, including the ones in the following calculators:


Input: Units:

Output: Units:


Input: Units:

Output: Units:



Pressure head measurements were taken by a consultant at your current site 30 years ago.  You are interested in the changes in the head at the site since then.  The measurements you have taken are in the units of Pa, and the old measurements were in pounds per square feet.  One of the old measurements is 2.5 lb/ft2, and your recent measurement was 135 Pa.  How much has the pressure head changed in the past 30 years?


Using the calculator you should find that 135 Pa = 2.81 lb/ft2 OR 2.81 lb/ft2 = 134.54 Pa so the pressure head has not changed significantly.

There are many resources available for more information on unit conversions.  For this newsletter  the following textbooks were used:

Freeze, R.A. and Cherry, J.A. (1979). Groundwater. Published by Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Fetter, C.W. (1994). Applied Hydrogeology, Third Edition. Published by Macmillan College Publishing Company, Inc., New York.


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Solinst 3001 Levelogger Gold

The Model 3001 Levelogger Gold (shown) comes in a variety of ranges suitable to measure compensated water levels and open bodies of water. Levelogger has a datalogger, 10-year battery, pressure transducer and temperature sensor, all housed in a very small, minimal maintenance, 7/8" x 4.9" (22 x 125 mm) stainless steel housing. The 10 year battery life, high accuracy and long-term stability make this the ideal device for recording water levels in monitoring and production wells, boreholes, lakes, rivers, tanks, harbors, etc.

Leveloggers can be inexpensively suspended on a simple wireline, or connected to the surface with direct read cable for rapid downloading of data and/or reprogramming, without removal from the water. Using a wireline reduces costs and allows the Leveloggers to be totally hidden from view and locked away from possible damage.


  • Pumping and slug tests
  • Watershed, drainage basin and recharge areas
  • Stream Gauging, lake levels and reservoirs
  • Harbor and tidal fluctuation monitoring
  • Wetlands and storm water run-off monitoring
  • Long term water level monitoring
  • All intensive monitoring of groundwater levels


For more info click here:  Solinst 3001 Levelogger
To purchase click here: Order Online

RISC5 & RBCA Tool Kit 
(Risk Assessment) 

YSI ProPlus

Solinst Leveloggers

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