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 GroundwaterSoftware.com 520 Chicopee Row Groton, MA, 01450 Tel: (978) 502-6001 Fax: (978) 477-0250 E-mail Us Here

Vol. 8  No. 3

### PHASE RELATIONSHIP CALCULATORS & SOLINST DISCRETE INTERVAL SAMPLER

Phase Relationships

The porous media, or soil, can be either a two-phase or three-phase composition. When you have dry soil, only the solid soil particles and air within the pores are present, resulting in a two-phase media. Obviously, when liquid (i.e. water) is added to the media, it is then a three-phase composition.

There are several parameters associated with phase relationships.  This newsletter will present the equations, and calculators for the phase relationship parameters:

• moisture content

• degree of saturation

• void ratio

• porosity

MOISTURE CONTENT

Moisture content is defined as the ratio of the mass of water to the mass of solids in the soil:

w = Mw/Ms

DEGREE OF SATURATION

The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of the volume of water to the total volume of void space:

Sr=Vw/Vv

VOID RATIO

Void ratio is defined as the ratio of the volume of the voids to the total volume of the soil:

e=Vv/Vs

POROSITY

Porosity is the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume of the soil:

n=Vv/V

Many of these parameters are used in hydrogeological studies every day, such as porosity and moisture content. Depending on the make up of the subsurface, such as the stratigraphy and lithology, you may encounter several different values for the above parameters with depth.  Differentiating between these units can often be difficult, however, equipment is available for partitioning off sections for sampling, such as the Solinst Discrete Interval Sampler.

Phase Relationship Calculators

**In all calculators keep the units consistent**

Moisture Content

Mass of water:

Mass of solids:

Moisture Content:

Degree of Saturation

Volume of water:

Volume of voids:

Degree of Saturation:

Void Ratio

Volume of voids:

Volume of solids:

Void Ratio:

Porosity

Volume of voids:

Total volume of media:

Porosity:

References

Craig, R.F. (1997). Soil Mechanics; Sixth Edition.  Published by Chapman & Hall, USA.

Fetter, C.W. (1994). Applied Hydrogeology; Third Edition.  Published by Prentice-Hall, Inc. , Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Schwartz, F.W. and Zhang, H. (2003). Fundamentals of Groundwater. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York, NY.

The Solinst Discrete Interval Sampler is a stainless steel sampler, with LDPE tubing mounted on the convenient Solinst reel.  The reel has a pressure attachment for the high pressure hand pump, and a pressure/vent switch which is used to apply and release the pressure on the sampler.  A sample release device is included with each Discrete Interval Sampler.

Applications

The Discrete Interval Sampler has numerous applications, including:

• collecting samples from distinct levels or points of inflow

• profiling open bodies of water, open boreholes and screened wells

• obtaining truly representative water samples from below floating product, or for obtaining samples of the product itself

There are many advantages to using the Discrete Interval Sampler, including:

• no mixing of water from different levels or units

• minimal disturbance of the water

• high quality samples

• easy disassembly for decontamination

• avoids purging and disposal of purge water